IL RISVEGLIO DEL CADUCEO DORMIENTE: la vera genesi dell'Homo sapiens

IL RISVEGLIO DEL CADUCEO DORMIENTE: la vera genesi dell'Homo sapiens


Con questo libro Marco La Rosa ha vinto il

con il patrocinio di: • Associazione socio-culturale ITALIA MIA di Roma, • Regione Lazio, • Provincia di Roma, • Comune di Arcinazzo Romano, e in collaborazione con • Associazione Promedia • PerlawebTV, e con la partnership dei siti internet • •


sabato 5 ottobre 2013


""Spazio, ultima frontiera. Eccovi i viaggi dell'astronave Enterprise durante la sua missione quinquennale. Diretta all'esplorazione di nuovi mondi. Alla ricerca di altre forma di vita e di civiltà. Fino ad arrivare dove nessun uomo è mai giunto prima."
da: Star Trek serie classica - 1966 -





Searching  for  extraterrestrial  life

di: M. Lunetta

Abstract: Initially we describe some characteristic of exoplanet Gliese 581g and its potential for life, as well as a proof of extraterrestrial life thru verification of China’s astrobiologist Chi Chang, and mysterious light pulse detected by astrophysicist Ragbir Bhathal. Then, by virtue of difficulties of sending and receiving electromagnetic signals between the planet Gliese 581g and Earth, we propose to obtain communications at velocity faster than c, by accelerating the group velocity of photon. Successively we considered some mystical and philosophical aspects of Gliese 581g planet discovery, including the versions of Anthropic principle and criticism to the idea of Steven Weinberg who does not believe in a cosmic design. We conclude by mentioning the infinite power of God which is identified, according to pantheistic religion, with all things.
Résumé: Nous décrivons initialement quelque caractéristique du exoplanète Gliese 581g et son potentiel pour la vie, ainsi comme une preuve de vie extraterrestre par vérification du astrobiologiste chinois Chi Chang et mystérieux poulses lumineux detecte par l’astrophysicien Ragbir Bhathal. Alors, au cas ou les difficultées pour envoyer et recevoir signs electromagnetiques entre le planète Gliese 581g et la Terre, nous proposons de obtenir communications à vitesse plus grande que c par accélération de la vitesse de groupe du photon. Successivement nous considerons quelques aspects mystiques et philosophiques de la découverte du planète Gliese 581g, compris les versions du principle anthropic et la critique à les idées de Steven Weinberg qui non croit em one design cosmique. Nous concluyons mentionnant l’infinite pouvoir de Dieu qui, selon la religion panthéiste, s’identify avec toute les choses.
Key words: Exoplanet Gliese 581g,electromagnetic signals faster than c, Anthropic principle, cosmic design, pantheism, extraterrestrial life, active space, tachyons.

    A. Discovery of a new exoplanet
The planet Gliese 581g, also named GI 581g or GJ 581g, was detected by astronomers in the Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey, led by principal investigator Steven S.Vogt, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and co-investigator R.Paul Butler of the Carnegie Institute of Washington.
The discovery was made on date September 29, 2010 using radial velocity measurements, combining 122 observations obtained over 11 years from the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES), instrument of the Keck 1 telescope of Hawaii with 119 measurements obtained over  4.3 years from the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) instrument of the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory.
The Lick-Carnegie team explained the results of their research in a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal. Although not sanctioned by the IAU’s naming conventions, Vogt’s team informally refers to the planet as “Zarmina’s world” after his wife, and some cases simply as “Zarmina”.
It is interesting to mention that in 1957 German astronomer
Wilhelm Gliese published his first star catalog of nearly one thousand stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth listing  their known properties and ordered by right ascension.

B. Physical Characteristics
Gliese 581g has an orbital period of 37 days, orbiting at a distance of 0.146 AU from its parent star. It is believed to have a mass of 3.1 to 4.3 times Earth’s and a radius of 1.3 to 2.0 times Earth’s. Its mass indicates it is probably a rocky planet with a solid surface. The planet’s surface gravity is expected to be in the range of 1.1 to 1.7 times Earth’s, enough to hold on to an atmosphere likely to be denser than Earth’s.
              C. Astronomic elements   
Star:                                            Gliese 581
Constellation:                            Libra
Right ascension(α):                   15h19m26“
Declination(δ):                          -07°43‘20“
Apparent magnitude(mV):        10.53
Distance:                                      20.3±0.3 ly
                                                         6.2±0.1 pc
Spectral type:                              M3V
Mass(m):                                      0.31M®
Radius(r):                                      0.29R®
Temperature(T):                          3.480±48K
Metallicity[Fe/H]:                        -0.33±0.12
Age:                                               7-11Gyr
Semimajor axis(a):                      0.14601±0.00014AU
Eccentricity(e):                             0
Orbital period(P):                         36.562±0.052d
Mean anomaly(M):                       271±48°
Semi-amplitude(K):                       1.29±0.19m/s

At least six planets are believed to be orbiting the dwarf star Gliese 581 which has a variable designation HO Librae and emits X-rays.

D. Tydal locking and habitability
Because of Gliese 581g’s proximity to its   parent star, it is predicted to be tidally locked to Gliese 581. Just as Earth’s Moon always presents the same face to the Earth, the length of the Gliese 581g’s sidereal day would then precisely match the length of its year, meaning it would be permanently dark on the other half of its surface. Tidal locking also means the planet would have no axial tilt and therefore no seasonality in a conventional sense.
Temperatures could range from blazing hot in the bright side to freezing cold in the dark side if atmosphere heat transport is limited. The atmosphere’s inventory of volatile compounds such as water and carbon dioxide could then permanently freeze out on the dark side. However, an atmosphere of the expected density would be likely to moderate these extremes. An atmosphere that is dense will circulate heat, potentially allowing a wide area on the surface to be habitable.
A comprehensive modeling study including atmospheric dynamics, realistic radioactive transfer and the physics of formation of the ice (if the planet has an ocean) indicates that the planet Gliese 581g can become as hot as Venus if it is dry and allow carbon dioxide to accumulate in its atmosphere.
The same study identified two habitable states for a water-rich planet. If the planet has a very thin atmosphere, a thick ice crust forms over most of the surface, but the substellar point remains hot enough to yeld a region of this ice or even episodically open water.
If the planet has an atmosphere with Earthlike pressures, containing approximately 20% (molar) carbon dioxide, then the greenhouse effect is sufficiently strong to maintain a pool of open water under the substellar point with temperatures comparable to the Earth’s tropics. This state has been dubbed eyeball Earth” by the author.
Two previously discovered planets in the same system, Gliese 581c and d (inward and outward from planet g respectively), were also regarded as potentially habitable following their discovery.

E. Potential for life
In an interview with Lisa-Joy Zgorki of the National Science Foundation, Steven Vogt was asked what he thought about the chance of life existing on Gliese 581g. Vogt was optimistic: “I am not a biologist, not do I want to play one on TV. Personally, given the ubiquity and propensity of life to flourish wherever it can, I would say that, my own personal feeling is that the chances of life on this planet are 100%. I have almost no doubt about it.”
In the same article Dr. Seager is quoted as sayurg “Everyone is so primed to say here’s the next place we’re are going to find life, but this isn’t a good planet for follow-up.” According to Vogt, the long lifetime of red dwarfs improves the chances of life being present. “It’s pretty hard to stop life once you give it in the right conditions”, he said. “Life on other planets doesn’t mean E.T. Even a simple single-cell bacteria or the equivalent of shower mold would shake perceptions about the uniqueness of life on Earth.” The discovery of Gliese 581g in the habitable zone of its star points to the potential of billions of Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy alone.

F. Transmissions from Alien Civilization(2)
China’s Xinhus News Agency, the official press agency of the government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) announced Thursday that the National Radio Astronomy Observatory has been monitoring signals from a previously unknown “dark” satellite in orbit around Saturn for the past 90 days. According to government officials, the signals appear to the first verified transmission from an alien civilization.
China’s leading astrobiologist, Dr. Xi Chang, a graduate of MIT, told Xinhua that “the signal repeats itself continuously in 2 minute long sequences and appears to be the four bases of the genetic code A, G, U and C that ribosomes must convert mRNA sequences into proteins and the twenty different amino acids that proteins are comprised of.”
Dr. Rosie Redfield, the newly appointed director of of the Astrobiology Program at NASA Headquarters, Washington, confirmed China’s discovery this morning. In a press release Redfield said that “China’s discovery is monumental consequences and has been chared with the world’s premier scientific institutions for vetting and peer review. If confirmed this will be the first proof of extraterrestrial life on the universe and confirmation that our DNA basis for life may be universal throughout the known universe.”

G. Mysterious light pulse from Gliese 581g, 13/10/2010
The recent discovery of Gliese 581g, an alien planet in the habitable zone of another star, has been an exciting development for scientists probing the galaxy for signs of extraterrestrial life. At least one claim of a possible signal from the planet has already surfaced and been met with harsh skepticism among the science community.
Following the Sept. 29 announcement of the discovery of Gliese 581g, Ragbir Bhathal, an astrophysicist at the University of Western Sydney, claims the light pulses he detected in December 2008 are from the region of the space where the extrasolar planet Gliese 581g orbits a red dwarf star.

H. Scientist declares alien signal sent from extrasolar planet Gliese 581g(3)
Professor Steven Vogt of the Carnegie Institution in Washington who declared the new-found planet to be within the elusive “habitable zone-a zone that Vogt estimates encompasses at least 10 to 20 percent of all planets in the universe-stunned the world after a press conference where the professor went on record contending that “Personally, given the ubiquity and propensity of life to flourish wherever it are, I would say, my own personal feeling is that the chances of light on this planet are 100 percent.”
The Milky Way galaxy is estimated to contain more than 200 billion stars.Using Vogt’s percentages as a guideline, about 40 billion planets may have life or be developing life.

A.              Communication velocity
If we suppose that an electromagnetic signal travels from Earth to Gliese 581g planet, and a similar signal travels from Glise 581g to the Earth, by supposing the signal speed equal to 299 792,458 Km/s, the double distance Earth-Gliese 581g would be covered in 40 years, approximately. These situation is difficult to be supported from any habitant of both planets, because any information would be lost or distorted. Then, the more convenient solution of this problem is to have at disposal, in both planets, opportune devices to work with signals propagating at velocity greater than c.
In a paper(4) sent for publication in Physics Essays, we proposed a method to obtain communications of electromagnetic field at velocity faster than the speed of light c.
In another paper(5) we report physical observations and experimental studies revealing that, contrarily to the Einstein’s principle postulated in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR), the propagation velocity of electromagnetic field can exceed the value c.
B.               Study for obtaining superluminal velocity
We think that it is possible to obtain communications at velocity faster than the speed of light c, by manipulating the electromagnetic parameters, by virtue(6) of inertial force and Poynting vector.
By observing the distortion of a de Broglie’s wave packet, as it travels through space(7)

we see, thru Figure 1, that as the wave packet travels onward, it grows broader and the velocity of its left hand edge L is less than the velocity of its right hand R, since the velocity of the particle is not a well defined quantity, but has an uncertainty Δvx.
The velocity of the point P is called group velocity and it can be shown to be equal to
vm = pm/m
                                                      = h/(mλm),                                     (1)
where m stands for mass of particle-like wave. The peak p does not travel with the same velocity as the peak P of the envelope, but with greater velocity
                                                     vm = c.                                               (2)
This is the velocity of the Fourier component with the average wavelength λm, and it is called the phase velocity of the wave packet. Waves are continually emerging from L and disappearing into R.
Under the action of the inertial force (8) FIN, the particle is maintained in uniform motion, by means of microscopic impulses given at intervals of the quantized half-wavelength
                                                λ/2 = h/2p.                                            (3)
The group velocity of de Broglie’s wave(9)
vg = dE/dp
                                                 = p/m = v                                              (4)
as a whole travels with the particle speed v.
The individual waves travel throughout the group velocity with the much higher speed c2/v.

C.               Superluminal carrier
By stating as general solution of the Schrödinger Time Dependent Wave Equation (STDE), the wave function
                             Ψ(z, t) = ρ(z/ћc)αcexp[-2i(kz-ωt)],                        (5)
where the constant α is included into the open interval of the rational numbers
                                              (1/c) < α < ∞,                                          (6)     
solution of the (STDE) gives the potential of superluminal carrier
             VSLC = -2hν + (2p2/m)[αc(αc-1)/(4k2z2)-(iαc/kz)-1]          (7)
and its total energy
      E = hν = -(VSLC/2) + (p2/m)[αc(αc-1)/((4k2z2)-(iαc/kz)-1].    (8)
The group velocity dE/dp, which coincides with the photon velocity, will be
                         vg = 2c[αc(αc-1)/(4k2z2)-(iαc/kz)-1].                      (9)

D.              Photon acceleration
Acceleration of the group velocity of photon will be
aPH = dvg/dz
                                 = 2iαc2/kz2-αc2(αc-1)/k2z3.                              (10)
Eq.(10) shows that the superluminal photon acceleration decreases with an increase in the second power of the propagation distance, but increases in its third power.
So, any manipulation of superluminal emitting, or receiving devices, must to take into account the mathematical balance expressed by the Eq.(10).

E. Electromagnetic plane wave
We suppose that, in free space, the Cartesian components of the electric field E and magnetic field B satisfy(10) the wave equation
                                    Δ2ψ-(1-v02)(∂2ψ/∂t)=0                                  (11)
                                            v0=αc/√(μ0ε0)                                        (12)
says(11) that the electric and magnetic fields propagate by waves with this velocity,
is the speed of light,
                                       μ0=(4x10-7±10-8)Hm-1                                 (13)
is the permeability of free space (12),
                             ε0=(8.854185x10-12±10-8)Fm-1                          (14)
is the conductivity of free space(13).
Eq.(11) has the plane wave solutions
                                           ψ=exp[i(kz-ωt)]                                     (15)
                                          =[√(μ0ε0]ω/(αc)                                      (16)
is the wave number,
                                                 ω=2πc/λ                                           (17)
is the angular frequency, and λ is the wavelength.
Now, if we consider a wave propagation in one direction only,say, the Z direction, the fundamental solution will be
                      ψ(z, t)=Aexp[i(kz-ωt)]+Bexp[-i(kz+ωt)].                (18)

F. Inertial Field
By including the contribution of inertial force FIN (14)dependent on the recently described inertial field VIN we have from Lex Secunda of Newton:
                                          (d/dt)p=FN + FIN                                       (19)
where FN is the Newtonian force.
If there is no applied force, the term FN vanishes, and Eq.(19) becomes
                                           (d/dt)mv=ћc/z2.                                      (20)
In superluminal regime there are no relativistic effects. In fact, if we apply, for instance, the relativistic correction to the mass m, wer obtain
                                         m=m0/√(1-v2/c2).                                     (21)
Since from (12)
v2 = v02
= α2c2/(μ0ε0),
the Eq.(21) becomes
= m0/√[1-α2/(μ0ε0)]
= constant,
(d/dt)mv =v(dm/dt) +m(dv/dt)
                                                      = zero +m(dv/dt).                                     (22)
Integration of (20) between the lower limits v0 and zero, for v and t, respectively, gives
                                                       v = v0 + VIN/p                                               (23)
                                                   ћc/(mvz) = v-v0 .                                            (24)
By substituting p from de Broglie’s hypothesis(15)
                                                            λ = h/p                                                      (25)
the Eq.(24) becomes
                                               v =v0 + [(cλ)/(2πz)]                                           (26)
which can be written as
                                                    v = v0 + c/(kz).                                               (27) 
If the particle starts from rest, the Eq.(27) will give
                                                          kz = ct/z.                                                    (28)
G. Methodology
Let write the wave equation in form of Eq.(18) representing the particle motion for the case of one-dimensional wave, and the Schrödinger equation
                          -[ћ2/(2m)](∂2ψ/∂z2)+VSL(z)ψ = iћ(∂ψ/∂t)                   (29)
generalized by inclusion(16) of the potential energy VSL(z).
By introduzing in Schrödinger Time Dependent Wave Equation (29) the potential VSL(z), the wave function (18), its second space derivative
                    (∂2ψ/∂z2)=-Ak2exp[i(kz-ωt)-Bk2exp[-i(kz+ωt)]                 (30)
and the time derivative
                     (∂ψ/∂t)=-iωAexp[i(kz-ωt)]-iωBexp[-i(kz+ωt)]                (31)
one can obtain
= iћ{-iω[Aei(kz-ωt)+B-i(kz+ωt)]}.                                    (32)  

By eliminating the common factor ψ(z,t), and considering that
p=ћk,   ћ=h/(2π),   ω=2πν,   hν=E,
the Eq.(32) becomes
                           p2/(2m) +VSL(z) = E,                     (33)
from what the group velocity is
dE/dp = v0
and, thru (12):
                           dE/dp = (αc)/√(μ0ε0).                  (34)

H. Poynting vector
The energy flow is represented(17) by the Poynting vector
                            S = [c/(4π)](ExH)                       (35)     
which, in superluminal regime, is
                          S = [(αc)/(4π)](ExH)                   (36)        
where α is defined by (6).
The vector S has dimensions of energy flow per unit time per unit area in a direction n by means of S∙n. Besides, since E and H are rapidly varying quantities, it is the mean value of S that has physical significance(18)
SAVE = (1/2η)(Ex2+Ey2)
                                                          =[(A2+B2)/2η]E2                             (37)
where Eis the peak magnitude of the sinusoidal electric field vector. We postulate that, as per luminal case, in the superluminal also, the vector S maintains unchanged its modulus ad infinitum, in free space, by means of the inertial force action.
I. Discussion
From Eq.(34) it is evident that the group velocity coincides with the velocity of superluminal photon. Besides, since Eq.(33) may be written
                                               VSL(z) = hν – p2/(2m),                                        (38)
we may obtain, from (38), the force of superluminal electromagnetic field on the particle of mass m:
                                                     FSL = - ∂zVSL(z)                                               (39)    
                        = - ∂z [-(m/2)(z2/t2)
                                                            = (mz)/t2                                                 (40)
or, from (12),
FSL = (m/t)v0
                                                               = (m/t)[(αc)/√(μ0ε0)].                       (41)

J. Conclusion
We think that results shown in this paper must be considered an essential starting point only. The consequences attributable to the superluminality of electromagnetic phenomenon must be, obviously, evaluated for each specific circumstance where it occur.
In all the cases, this short study, far of being a synthetic treatise, it is a simple and useful embryo to be applied and developed in the whole body of electrodynamics.
Finally, we must emphasize, that this study want to be a contribution for paying attention to the more and more urgent necessity of reaching technical means that allow, thru suitable devices, a deeper knowledge of the universe.

A.Talk given by Steven Weinberg in April 1999.
Weinberg, at the end of his talk,says that the aim of the Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was a constructive dialogue between science and religions.Weinberg emphasized that he was in favor of this dialogue, but not a constructive dialogue. We contest such a declaration because dialogue between science and religion carries ever to positive conclusions, unless in the case of total absence of religious faith. In all other cases religions and science are strictly connected, since mathematical logic of science is compatible with philosophical base of faith. The divine thinking is totally independent from the scientific one, unless they show a common logic.

B. Origin of universe
A deity who created the universe and some special concern with life, does not admit, according to Weinberg, the idea of a designer. Perhaps the audience ‘was thinking of something much more abstract, some cosmic spirit of order and harmony, as Einstein did’ and not a deity like those of traditional monotheistic religions. Weinberg  uses a wise criticism to the miracles on which the great monotheistic faiths are founded, but he does not mention the faiths which are not founded on the miracle.
The pantheism is one of these faiths and, however, it is perfectly reconcilable with all physical, biological and cosmological objects, with all laws and constants of the universe(19).
C. Freedom given by the Immanent God
The God of Pantheism, when created nature and humankind, leaved total freedom to its creatures. The objection of Richard Feynman, mentioned by Weinberg, above which when you look at the universe and understand its laws, ‘the theory that is all arranged as a stage for God to what man’s struggle, for good and evil seems inadequate’, is frontally demolished by the fact that the whole creation is completely efficient to correct, prevent and establish automatically rules more and more perfect to avoid behaviours unsuitable and sufferings.
God is actively interested to avoid the slaughters, the genocides and all suffering of the people. He stimulates the pacific fight against wars, as well as the rational and scientific methods to avoid poverty, planetary pollution and illnesses. A net split exists between the good and the bad, between love and hate. Today, a lot of mechanisms is employed to prevent poverty, hunger, illnesses, to avoid disasters, racial pursuit, aggression and despotism. God has infinite ways to release His purposes. The initial act of creation is everlasting, with all its effects.
The essence of Pantheism doctrine consists in the fact that God is immanent to the whole universe, since its creation.

D. Anthropic Principle
Weinberg mention the anthropic reasoning: ‘Isn’t it wonderful that God put us here on earth, where there’s water and air and the surface gravity and temperature are so comfortable, rather than some horrid place, like Mercury or Pluto?’ And I ask: ‘ where else in the solar system other than in the earth could we have evolved?’
David Albert, in the book Quantum Mechanics and Experience, says that since 1920s, with the advent of quantum physics and the discovery of wave-packets and superposition of particles, the humanity changed his position of “observer of the Universe”. Thru collapsing it’s wave-packet and becoming a particle for the split, it takes to be other particle.
From D. Albert we quote:
‘Perhaps the collapse occurs precisely at the last possible moment; perhaps it always occurs precisely at the level of the consciousness, and perhaps, moreover, consciousness is always the agent that brings it about’.
(…)The brain of a sentient being may enter a state wherein states with various different conscious experiences are superposed; and at such moments the mind connected with that brain opens it’s inner eye and gazes on the brain, and that causes the entire system (brain, measuring instrument, measured system, everything)to collapse’…
Therefore the Universe changes from an aggregation of probability waves and superposed particles into the somewhat more definite reality that we know. This is the meaning of the PAP(Participatory Anthropic Principle). We are not detached observers of a movie-reality playing before that we are powerless to interact with. We are, in a certain sense, the cameramen.
From Weinberg we quote:
‘The universe is very large, and perhaps infinite, so it should be no surprise that, among the enormous number of planets that may support only unintelligent life and the still vaster number that cannot support life at all, there is some tiny fraction of it which there are living beings who are capable of thinking about the universe, as we are doing here’.
By mentioning a mother died painfully of cancer, a father’s personality destroyed by Alzheimer’s disease, and scores of second and third cousins murdered in Holocaust, Weinberg says that ‘signs of benevolent designer are pretty well hidden’. And he quotes from Paradise Lost of Milton;
            ‘I formed them free, and free they must remain
            Till they enthrall themselves: I else must change
            Their nature, and revoke the high decree
            Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained
            Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall’.
In his article, Weinberg says that he don’t believe in a cosmic designer and cited the Muslim zealot who killed Sadat, the Jewish zealot who killed Rabin, the Hindu zealot who killed Gandhi, the Christianity which lived comfortably with slavery for many centuries. He cited also ‘Mark Twain which described his mother as a genuinely good person, whose soft heart pitied even Satan, but who had no doubt about the legitimacy of slavery, because in years of living in antebellum Missouri she had never heard any sermon opposing slavery, but only countless sermons preaching that slavery was God’s will’.
E.Versions of Anthropic Principle
By continuing the subject rising by Weinberg, cite some ideas showed by A. Feoli and S. Rampone (19). From their paper we quote:
‘In a seminal paper (20), Brandon Carter proposed two versions of the Anthropic Principle(AP). The weak interpretation, against the dogma of the Copernican Principle, takes in account “the fact that our location in the Universe is necessarily privileged to the extent of being compatible with our existence as observers”. Furthermore he called Strong Anthropic Principle (SAP) the statement “The Universe (and hence the fundamental parameter on which it depends) must be such as to admit the creation of observers within it at some stage”.’
In the Barrow and Tipler book (21), four different statements of AP are defined. Strong (SAP), weak (WAP), Participatory (PAP), and Final (FAP).
The laws of Universe can not contradict the AP proper sense that our existence, as intelligent life form evolved on a earth-like planet. Since Barrow and Tipler’s book, the scientific and philosophical debate about AP has been going on with some criticism and some enthusiastic supporters(22). For example, Rosen (23) shows “the conviction that AP is among the most important fundamental principles around, even (…) the most basic principle we have. And the physical phenomenon are we most sure of, is our own existence”.
On the contrary, Hawking (24) thinks that “it runs against the tide of the whole history of science […]. The Earth is a medium-size planet […] in the outer suburb of an ordinary spiral galaxy, which is itself one of the about a million  million  galaxies in the observable Universe”. Press (25) explicitly warns the readers of Barrow and Tipler’s book that the authors want to convince them “of an outstanding claim there is a grand design in the Universe that favours the development of intelligent life”.
F. Criticisms to Weinberg
We must agree to the fact that the majority of ideas shown in previous §E. is reach of criticism to the idea of Weinberg who does not believe in a cosmic design. Materialist atheism, which advocated that the arguments, as the existence of the galaxies, its planets, its atmosphere and winds, its flowers and fishes, bird and insects, are unfounded and the universe is the product of pure coincidences, goes too far from the reality of a pantheistic deity which is of pure immanent substance.

G.Active space
By considering the SAP it is necessary to mention the advent of theoretical discovery of active space (26), which represents the turning point of physical knowledge since postulates the existence of a universal scalar field which acts on all particles thru a constant given by the product of Planck’s constant ћ by the speed c of light in vacuum.
In the particular case  of the inertia universal field in X direction
                                                        VIN = ћc/x                                                  (42)
we can obtain the inertial force
FIN = - ∂x(ћc/x)
                                                         =(ћc/x2) dyne.                                          (43)
FIN acts on the particle by means of concrete microscopic impulses given by
                                                    λ/x = ћ/(2π).                                                    (44)
H. Light Carrier
By studying some energetic aspects of radio signals emitted from the source SHGb02+14a, recently noticed as the most promising candidate to be an intelligent extraterrestrial signal, we consider that, thru the inertial field, the Poynting vector S maintains unchanged its modulus ad infinitum in free space.
According to the hypothesis formulated in the theory of light carrier (27) we think that the changes induced by the inertial field VIN on the two photons emerging from the annihilation process of the electron-positron pairs (28), photons moving along two orthogonal directions (Z and X), create two electromagnetic fields: one propagating itself in the Z direction and other in the X direction. The electron-positron pair disappears as matter, and two photons are created, sharing all the momentum(29).

I. Superluminal Carrier
By solving the Schrödinger time-dependent equation (STDE) where the power
                                                             (ћc/x)αc                                                    (45)
was introduced as coefficient of the wave function ψ(z, t), i.e.
                                      ψ(z, t) = ρ(z/ћc)αcexp[-2i(kz-ωt)],                              (46)     
we obtain the potential VSLC of the superluminal carrier, the total energy , and the group velocity dE/dp.
J. Tachions
By studying solutions of the Maxwell and Dirac-Weil equations, Waldir Rodrigues Jr. and José Maiorino were able to propose a field-unified theory of arbitrary speed in matter (30). Many experiments, mainly in the evanescent mode, result in superluminal propagation. The first successful evanescent mode result was obtained in 1992 by Nimtz (31). Observations of the rotation of some galaxies made by NASA suggest that they are spinning with superluminal velocity (32). F.S. Mandarake (33) proposed that, as a consequence of the arbitrary speed of information or mass, transfer can occur. These assertions fly in the face of both Einstein Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and causality.
In §4 of his article (34), Thomas E. Phipps Jr. considers a particle P as described in inertial systems 1 and 2. The star’s “frame-time velocity” measured in the inertia system instantaneously commoving with his telescope can readily become superluminal, because the factor γ12 may have any magnitude greater than unity.
K. Graviton and Inertion
In a study unpublished (2008), M. Lunetta deduced theoretically the identity between the particles graviton and inertion. Comparison between the inertial force FIN and the gravitational force FGR revealed that the apparently classical constant G coincides with the quantum constant ћc.
Detection of inertial or gravitational force can be performed by means of crystals which have the ability of transforming mechanical vibrations into alternating voltage of corresponding frequency (35).
A.Immanent God
The infinite and perennial propagation of electromagnetic radiation reflects the infinite power of God. God is not transcendental like in monotheistic religions (Christian, Jewey, Muslim) or in Cartesian way of thinking. He is immanent as conceived by Giordano Bruno and Baruch Spinoza. God created all things and He is identified with them.
Between divine creations we have the active space and the light carrier which have the ability of maintaining perennially active any radio signal as well as any light velocity of any origin, at very large distance from emitting equipment. When we consider, for example, that the radio signal SHGb02+14a has artificial origin, at a distance of 1000 light-years, and that a light-year corresponds to 9.4605512Km, we must conclude that such a signal traveled with unchanged energy
                                 9.46055x1012x103Km=9.46055x1015Km.                       (47)    
B. Intelligent Design(36)
Contrarily to Weinberg’s ideas, the Final Anthropic Principle (FAP) postulates that ‘ the intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the universe and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out’. Supporters believe that intelligent life-forms have cosmological significance by virtue of their future capacity to understand and manipulate matter on a cosmic scale.
In the book The Physics of Immortality (1955), Tipler says that humankind may not exist forever but human culture will persist, being preserved and developed by self-replicating intelligent machines. The transfer of our cultural software to alternative forms of hardware is one factor of encouraging the indefinite growth of the capacity to process information and to manipulate matter.
C. Intermediate Mechanism
A very large number of intermediate algorithms act physically to release the identification of the universe with God. In all these algorithms the key-operator appears to be the Planck’s quantum of action h. Since it seems impossible to separate the matter of universe from human beings, animals, plants, water, gas and minerals, there is no doubt that life, physical features and behaviour of universe belong to the realm of Pantheism.(37)
Whenever immersed in the universe and submitted to the apparent common destiny of all surrounding matter, the human brain, by virtue of his independent working and his neural structure, may establish connection and communication with any section of the universe. He can to throw his thought, his reflections and his desires to any region of the universe and, above all, to God which is extremely near to him. No space nor time separate man from God: identity is perfect.
D. Higg’s Boson
The Higg’s boson is a key-particle to explain the origin of mass of other elementary particles. Initially predicted in 1964 by the British physician Peter Higg, is expected to be confirmed thru the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). With a mass of about 120 GeV, the Higg’s boson is nicknamed God’s particle, because its discovery would unify the comprehension of particles and may to help human beings in knowing the God’s mind.
This argument reflects unequivocally the fact that God, when created the universe, gave to it the power of reproducing itself indefinitely. God is the unique substance, God is the world, the mankind, the Earth, the mountains, the seas, the sky, the animals, or all.
1Gliese 581g, from Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia
2M. Muracco, China announces First Verified Transmission From An Alien Civilization, April 1, 2011.
3T. A. Salem (reporter of Science and Technology), Is there intelligent life on Glise 581g?, October 11, 2010    20:22:15.
4M. Lunetta, Manipulation of Electrodynamics, Phys. Essays ( October 8, 2009).
5M. Lunetta, Theoretical Evidence of a Superluminal Carrier,Phys. Essays 19, p.538, (December 2006).
6M. Lunetta, Phys. Essays 17, p.343,(2003).
7K. R. Atkins, Physics, University of Pennsylvania John While & Sons, 2nd printing (USA), p.567.
8M. Lunetta, Active Space as a Source of Inertia,Phys. Essays 16, p.345 (September 3, 2003),
9Physics(Ref.7), p. 567.
10M. Lunetta, Theoretical Evidence of a Light Carrier, Phys. Essays 17, p.153 (June 2004).
  11M. Lunetta, Inertia’s role in electron-positron pair annihilation, Phys. Essays 18, p.514 (December 2005).
12S. Ramo & J. Winnery, Fields and Waves in Modern Radio, 2nd edition, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1958) p. 278.
13Fields and Waves in Modern Radio (Ref. 12), p. 281.
14Active Space as a Source of Inertia (Ref. 8), p. 344.
15Physics (Ref.7), p.538.
16Theoretical Evidence of a Superluminal Carrier (Ref.5), p.537.
17M.V.Klein, Optics, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1958), p.526.
18C.A.Coulsen & A.Jeffrey, Waves (2nd edition-edited byJeffrey & Iain Adamson, London,Langman, London, New York, 1977), p. 120.
19A. Feoli & S. Rampone, Is the strong anthropic principle tôo weak? (Dipart. Di Scienze Fisiche F.R. Caianello, Univ. di Salerno, I,84081, Baranissi-Salerno, Italy).
20Brandon Carter, Seminal Paper with Two Versions of Anthropic Principle.
21J. D. Barrow & F.J. Tipler,The anthropic cosmological principle, ( Clarendon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 15-23.
22Supporters of Anthropic Principle (AP).
23J. Rosen, The anthropic principle, ( Am. J. Phys. 53, 1985), pp. 335-339.
24S.W. Hawking, A brief histry of time (Bantam, New York, 1988), p. 126.
25W. H. Press, A place for teleology? (Nature 320, 1986), pp.315-316.
26Active Space as a Source of Inertia (Ref. 8), p. 343,
27Theoretical evidence of a light carrier (Ref. 10), p.153.
28Inertia’s  role in electron-positron pair annihilation (Ref.11), p.514.
29R. W. Christy & A. Pytte, The structure of matter: an introduction to the modern physics (Benjamin, New York,1965), pp.282-283.
30W. A. Rodrigues & J.E. Maiorino, Random Oper. Stoch Equations (4, 1996), p.353.
31G. Nimtz, Ann.Phys. (7, 1994), p. 618.
32B.A. Harmon, Galactic superluminal source (3rd Integral Workshop: the extreme universe, Taormina, Italy (edited by G. Palumbo, Bozzano, and Winhler, Astrophys. Lett. Commun. Astroph 9812397, 1998).
33F. S. Mandarake, Bull. Pure Appl. Sci. (17, 1998), p.61.
34T. E. Phippe Jr., Superluminal velocities: Evidence for a New Kinematics? (Phys. Essays 2, 1989), p. 180.
35Head Quarterstaff of the American Radio Relay League,The radio amateur’s handbook,(Nevington, Conn. USA, Byron Goodman, VIDX Editor, 43rd edition, 1966-USAECOM HEXAGON), p. 51.
37M. Lunetta, Panteismo,(Editora Idéia, João Pessoa, PB,Brazil, 2009), p.85





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